Rao KN, Begum S. one-year prevalence has been estimated to be 5.8% for men and 9.5% for women. It is estimated that by the year 2020 if current trends for demographic and epidemiological transition continue, the burden of depression will increase to 5.7% of the total burden of disease and it would be the second leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), second only to ischemic heart disease. In view of the morbidity, depression as a disorder has always been a focus of attention of researchers in India. Various authors have tried to study its prevalence, nosological issues, psychosocial risk factors including TFR2 life events, sympto matology in the cultural context, comorbidity, psychoneurobiology, treatment, outcome, prevention, disability and burden. Some of the studies have also tried to address various issues in children and elderly. This review focuses on research done on various depressive disorders in India. For this, a thorough internet search was done using key words like depression, life events, prevalence, Etifoxine hydrochloride classification, cultural issues, outcome, prevention, disability and burden etc in various combinations. The various search engines like Pubmed, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect, Search Medica, Scopus, And Etifoxine hydrochloride Medknow etc were used. In addition thorough search of all the issues of Indian Journal of Psychiatry available online was done. Hand search of some of the missing issues was also attempted and this yielded a few more articles. Review articles which were felt to be not reflecting the Indian scenario to a large extent or not covering the available Indian data were excluded. Treatment issues (antidepressants) are reviewed separately by us in this compilation of annotations to be published. Data from animal studies and originating in the form of case reports and small case series, until felt necessary havent been included. The available data has been organized under the headings of epidemiology, demographic and psychosocial risk factors, neurobiology, symptomatology, comorbidity, assessment and diagnosis, impact of depression, treatment related issues and prevention of depression. Epidemiology Many studies have estimated the prevalence of depression in community samples and the prevalence rates have varied from 1.7 to 74 per thousand population.[2,3] Reddy and Chandrasekhar carried out a metanalysis, which included 13 studies on epidemiology of psychiatric disorders which include 33572 subjects from the community and reported prevalence of depression to be 7.9 to 8.9 per thousand population and the prevalence rates were nearly twice in the urban areas. The findings with regard to prevalence in urban population are in line with the findings of a survey done on the entire adult population of an industrial township, which showed that the prevalence rate for depression to be 19.4 per thousand. A recent large population-based study from South India, which screened more than 24,000 subjects in Chennai using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-12 reported overall prevalence of depression to be 15.1% after adjusting for age using the 2001 census data. In another recent study, Nandi em Etifoxine hydrochloride et al /em . compared the prevalence of depression in the same catchment area after a period of 20 years (first in 1972 and then in 1992) and reported that the prevalence of depression increased from 49.93 cases per 1000 population to 73.97 cases per 1000 population. Studies done in primary care clinics/center have estimated a prevalence rate of 21-40.45%.[6C9] Studies done in hospitals have shown that 5 to 26.7% of cases attending the psychiatric outpatient clinics have depression.[10C13] Studies on the elderly population, either in the community, inpatient, outpatient and old age homes have shown that depression is the commonest mental illness in elderly subjects.[14C19] Nandi em et al /em . studied psychiatric morbidity of the elderly population of a rural community in West Bengal. In a sample of 183 subjects (male 85, female 98) they found 60% of the population to be mentally ill with higher morbidity in women compared to men (77.6% and 42.4% respectively). There was significantly more morbidity in population in the age group 70-74 and 80+ as compared to normal population. The total mental morbidity rate.