Briefly, RNA was extracted from 100 L of plasma using the Viral Total Nucleic Acid Purification Kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) on a Maxwell 16 MDx instrument and eluted in 50 L. a group may be universally pathogenic to Asian macaques . Of note, not all simarteriviruses are universally fatal in macaques. Crab-eating macaques ( em Macaca fascicularis /em ) infected with the simarterivirus Kibale reddish colobus disease 1 (KRCV-1) isolated from crazy reddish colobus ( em Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles /em ) in Uganda exhibited slight indications of disease and fully recovered upon clearance of KRCV-1 viremia . We recently discovered a novel simarterivirus circulating in apparently healthy olive baboons ( em Papio anubis /em ) in the Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) in San Antonio, Texas, USA, that we termed Southwest baboon disease (SWBV-1, hereafter referred to as SWBV) . By using this disease, we sought to understand variations in simarterivirus illness and disease in natural (i.e., baboon) versus non-natural (we.e., macaque) hosts that are 98% genetically identical. In this study, we have the broader goal of understanding sponsor factors that facilitate or protect against the development of viral hemorrhagic fever. Concurrently, a similar study was carried out in patas monkeys ( em Erythrocebus patas /em ) and rhesus monkeys ( em Macaca mulatta /em ) using SHFV (observe article by Cornish et al., currently under review). BMS-663068 (Fostemsavir) 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Study Design The experimental design and protocols were agreed upon prior to initiation of the study and were not modified after the study had begun. Animal care, observations, and medical laboratory testing were performed in the Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC) in San Antonio, Texas, USA. Viral lots, circulation cytometry, and data analysis were performed in batch in the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center BMS-663068 (Fostemsavir) (WNPRC), Madison, Wisconsin, USA, after summary of the study. 2.2. Care and Ethical Use of Animals All baboons and macaques used in this study were cared for from the staff in the Southwest National Primate Research Center in accordance with the regulations and guidelines defined in the Animal Welfare Act and the Guidebook for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Details of this study (protocol 1539 PC, MM 0) were authorized by the Texas Biomedical Study Institutes Animal Care and Use Committee in November of 2016, in accordance with recommendations of the Weatherall Statement. 2.3. Clinical Rating Animals were observed for indications of disease and obtained according to the guidelines described below. Scores equal to or greater than 5 required evaluation by the study veterinarian. Scores equal to or greater than 15 were deemed terminally ill. Weight loss: 0 = decrease of 0C10%; 1 = decrease of 10C20%; 2 = decrease of 20%. Temp: 0 = switch 2 F; 1 = switch of BMS-663068 (Fostemsavir) 2C3 F; 2 = switch of 3C4 F; 3 = switch of 5 F. Responsiveness: 0 = alert, responsive, normal activity, free of disease indications or exhibits only resolved/resolving disease indications; 1 = slightly diminished general activity, subdued but responds normally to external stimuli; 2 = withdrawn, may have head down, fetal posture, hunched, reduced response to external stimuli; 8 = prostrate but able to rise if stimulated, moderate to dramatically reduced response to external stimuli; 15 = persistently prostrate, severely or completely unresponsive, may have indications of respiratory stress. Hair coating: 0 = normal appearance; 1 = rough hair coating. Respiration: 0 = normal deep breathing; 3 = labored; 15 = agonal. Petechia: 0 = none; 1 = slight (1C39%); 2 = moderate (40C79%); 3 = severe (80%). Bleeding: 0 = none; 1 = at bleeding site; 2 = other than bleeding site. Nasal discharge: 0 = not present; 1 = present. Chow eaten: 0 = 25C100%; 1 = 25%. Food enrichment: 0 = 25C100%; 1 = 25%. Stool: 0 = normal; 1 = no stool present; 2 = diarrhea. Fluid Intake: 0 = drinking normal amounts; 1 = reduced fluid intake; 2 = no intake. Pores and skin Rabbit Polyclonal to Claudin 11 tenting: 0 = normal, 1 = 2 s. 2.4. Disease Inoculations A SWBV stock was created for this study by aliquoting plasma collected from olive baboon 15290, which was found to.